Did you know there are five distinct stages of tooth decay? And, that in the first stage of tooth decay, you
can actually take steps to reverse the progression of the disease? Indeed, it’s true. In the first stage
of decay, whether you’re a child or an adult, the application of fluoride via fluoride treatments, your
toothpaste and even the local water supply can stop a cavity from penetrating through the enamel
and reaching its second stage. Even the saliva in your mouth and the foods you eat help to re-mineralize
a tooth in jeopardy. But that’s just the first stage! What about the rest? Understanding how a
cavity progresses can assist you in preventing each successive stage from occurring in your
children. There’s always a lot going on in that little mouth!
In stage one, the tooth begins to show signs of strain from the attack of sugars and acids, and
white spots will begin to materialize just below the surface of the enamel. These white spots are
representative of the demineralization of the tooth and can be easy to miss because they’re likely
to occur on your child’s molars. A dental exam, of course, is designed to catch such cavities! Can
you see why regular visits to the dentist are recommended? As mentioned previously, at this
stage, the cavity can be repaired without the need to excavate the tooth.
Stage two marks the beginning of the end for the surface enamel that is being attacked.
Initially, the tooth erodes from the underside outward, so the outer enamel will still be intact
for the first half of this second stage. Once the cavity breaks through the surface of the
enamel, there is no turning back, and your child will need to have the cavity corrected with a
If a cavity in your child’s mouth were to progress beyond stage two without you knowing,
you’d tend become aware of it when it started to hit stage three because it would probably
start to cause some pain. At this level, the cavity begins to eat away at the second level of
tooth material that lies beneath the enamel: the dentin. A filling can still be used to stop the
onslaught of bacteria assaulting the tooth in order to prevent the cavity from reaching the
tooth’s most critical component: the pulp.
Once the cavity reaches the pulp, it’s going to hurt. A lot. So if you’ve unfortunately missed all
the signs to this point, a screaming child or moaning teenager will certainly let you know there
is a big problem. Stage four is serious, and a root canal is the only option of treatment at this
stage, save for a complete extraction.
In the fifth and final stage of a cavity, the infection has reached the tip of the root and exited
the tip of the tooth’s structure. This in turn infects the surrounding tissues and possibly the
bone structure. Swelling would be commonplace and pain severe. In children (as well as
adults) an abscess can be fatal if not dealt with immediately. Root canal or extraction would
be the order of the day should decay reach this stage.
As you can see, cavities don’t happen overnight. In the early stages, regular visits can stall and
reverse the progression of these dastardly little devils, so it really does pay to visit the dentist
at pre-selected intervals. You can keep your kids far from stage five their whole lives, and if a
little bit of prodding to get them to the dentist accomplishes that, you can rest easy despite